Basil has taken over the culinary world. What on earth did we do before fresh basil was available? I use it for everything! Good old Ocimum basilicum (Genovese Basil)…the spicy, sweet, aromatic herb that is getting top billing these days.
But, not all variations are Italian, and there are approximately 150 species of basil to choose from. It’s actually in the “mint” family — go figure. Even though basil is used across the globe, it’s origin goes back to Asia and India. Here’s another little piece of trivia for you– in Italy today, basil is a symbol of amore (love), but in ancient Greece, it was a symbol of hatred. My, how it’s evolved, right?
While basil is quite versatile (it’s great for sprucing up a flower garden), it’s undeniably perfection when it comes to using it in the kitchen. I keep a plant in my window (make sure it has sun) in the kitchen, and take snips off whenever I can. I’ve even been tempted to sleep with it under my pillow. Heck, if the French can sleep with Lavender, why not basil?
Ocimum basilicum (Genovese Basil)
Basil leaves are only good for about 5 days in the refrigerator, so be certain you use it fairly soon after you purchase or pick it. When rinsing basil, rinse lightly and place in a damp paper towel, and try not to bruise the tender leaves. If bruised, the leaves will turn black.
I use basil in so many dishes — it really is invaluable. For example, you can use it on top of pizza, in tomato sauce for pasta, and in fresh salads. Insalata Caprese is a popular Italian salad, which consists of fresh mozzarella slices, sliced ripe tomatoes, fresh garlic and fresh basil doused with olive oil, balsamic vinegar and salt and pepper (incredible). If you’re a chicken or lamb eater, it’s fabulous chopped and sprinkled over baked chicken or lamb. However, one of the best ways to use basil is in Pesto sauce. I frequently use it when I make Tuscan vegetable bean soup, and I use Pesto with pasta and on my gluten-free pizza with goat cheese, fresh tomatoes and Buffalo Mozzarella. Try it mixed in with cut up golden potatoes, roasted — INCREDIBLE! I also rinse and slice zucchini and rub pesto all over them and bake them at 375 until slightly browned — AMAZING! If a recipe calls for dried basil, I almost always use fresh, but keep in mind that it’s stronger so you’ll probably want to cut the amount used in half. It’s really a great thing to keep on hand, and it’s really healthy too (see below). Pesto freezes wonderfully. I frequently make a bigger batch, place the left-overs in ice trays, cover them and freeze them. Then you can simply pop them out of the trays and use them at will! Presto pesto!
Here’s a great recipe for Pesto! It’s ridiculously easy.
- 4 cups packed fresh basil leaves, washed well
- 1/2 cup pine nuts, toasted until golden, cooled
- 1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan or Romano cheese
- 3 large garlic cloves
- 1 tablespoon fresh-squeezed lemon juice
- 1/4 cup plus 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
Have ready a bowl of ice and cold water. In a saucepan of boiling salted water blanch basil for ONLY 2 seconds, a handful at a time. With a slotted spoon, remove the basil and place it into the ice water. Drain and pat dry.
While the basil is drying, toast the pine nuts in your oven until golden brown. Cool.
In a food processor purée basil with all the ingredients until smooth. Add salt and pepper to taste. Pesto may be made 2 days ahead and chilled, but make sure you put it in an air-tight container and refrigerate it.
* Here’s some great info about the health factors of using basil from the WHOLE FOODS site:
Research studies on basil have shown unique health-protecting effects in two basic areas: basil’s flavonoids and volatile oils.
DNA Protection Plus Anti-Bacterial Properties
The unique array of active constituents called flavonoids found in basil provide protection at the cellular level. Orientin and vicenin are two water-soluble flavonoids that have been of particular interest in basil, and in studies on human white blood cells; these components of basil protect cell structures as well as chromosomes from radiation and oxygen-based damage.
In addition, basil has been shown to provide protection against unwanted bacterial growth. These anti-bacterial properties of basil are not associated with its unique flavonoids, but instead with its volatile oils, which contain estragole, linalool, cineole, eugenol, sabinene, myrcene, and limonene. Lab studies show the effectiveness of basil in restricting growth of numerous bacteria, including : Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O:157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Essential oil of basil, obtained from its leaves, has demonstrated the ability to inhibit several species of pathogenic bacteria that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotic drugs. In a study published in the July 2003 issue of the Journal of Microbiology Methods, essential oil of basil was even found to inhibit strains of bacteria from the genera Staphylococcus, Enterococcus and Pseudomonas, all of which are not only widespread, but now pose serious treatment difficulties because they have developed a high level of resistance to treatment with antibiotic drugs.(September 8, 2003)
Studies published in the February 2004 issue of Food Microbiology, have shown that washing produce in solution containing either basil or thyme essential oil at the very low concentration of just 1% resulted in dropping the number of Shigella, an infectious bacteria that triggers diarrhea and may cause significant intestinal damage, below the point at which it could be detected. While scientists use this research to try to develop natural food preservatives, it makes good sense to include basil and thyme in more of your recipes, particularly for foods that are not cooked such as salads. Adding fresh thyme and/or basil to your next vinaigrette will not only enhance the flavor of your fresh greens, but will help ensure that the fresh produce you consume is safe to eat. (March 25, 2004)
The eugenol component of basil’s volatile oils has been the subject of extensive study, since this substance can block the activity of an enzyme in the body called cyclooxygenase (COX). Many non-steriodal over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS), including aspirin and ibuprofen, as well as the commonly used medicine acetaminophen, work by inhibiting this same enzyme. (In the case of acetaminophen, this effect is somewhat controversial, and probably occurs to a much lesser degree than is the case with aspirin and ibuprofen). This enzyme-inhibiting effect of the eugenol in basil qualifies basil as an “anti-inflammatory” food that can provide important healing benefits along with symptomatic relief for individuals with inflammatory health problems like rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel conditions.
Nutrients Essential for Cardiovascular Health
Want to enrich the taste and cardiovascular health benefits of your pasta sauce? Add a good helping of basil. Basil is a very good source of vitamin A (through its concentration of carotenoids such as beta-carotene). Called “pro-vitamin A,” since it can be converted into vitamin A, beta-carotene is a more powerful anti-oxidant than vitamin A and not only protects epithelial cells (the cells that form the lining of numerous body structures including the blood vessels) from free radical damage, but also helps prevent free radicals from oxidizing cholesterol in the blood stream. Only after it has been oxidized does cholesterol build up in blood vessel walls, initiating the development of atherosclerosis, whose end result can be a heart attack or stroke.
Free radical damage is a contributing factor in many other conditions as well, including asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The beta-carotene found in basil may help to lessen the progression of these conditions while protecting cells from further damage.
Basil is also a good source of magnesium, which promotes cardiovascular health by prompting muscles and blood vessels to relax, thus improving blood flow and lessening the risk of irregular heart rhythms or a spasming of the heart muscle or a blood vessel.
In addition to the health benefits and nutrients described above, basil also emerged from our food ranking system as a very good source of iron, and calcium, and a good source of potassium and vitamin C.
Read full article here: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=85